文学论文:克罗齐意象观的理论图景探析

Abstract: The image in Benedetto Croce's aesthetics is the product of the spiritual synthesis, that is, the intuitive expression. It is no longer the “image” of the noumenon idea or the “image” of God in western traditional aesthetics, but a picture of pure spirit, which is called by Croce the pure poetic image. The formation of pure poetic image, focusing on the subject value in artistic creation, is a process of spiritual liberation through overcoming passivity, which also makes art independentfrom the fetters of philosophy and theology. Pure poetry image, however, easily makes aesthetic subject caught in the extremes and absolutes of human development leading to the destruction of the human nature. So Croce's literary images incorporates communication into the scope of literary creation, interrelating subject soul intuition and social culture, which achieves the connection of pure inpidual mind and civilization. Croce's image view still has important enlightenment to today's literary and artistic creation and criticism, that is, literary and artistic creation and criticism should not only be based on literature and art itself, but also be people-oriented, soas to realize the effective communication between aesthetic subject's mind and social culture.

  克罗齐在《美学》的开篇就谈到:“人类的知识总是分为两种:要么是直观的知识,要么是逻辑的知识;通过想象获得的知识或者通过智力获得的知识;个人的知识或者宇宙的知识;关于个别事物的知识或者关于不同事物之间关系的知识。事实上,知识要么是意象,要么是概念。”1克罗齐说的意象,是一种基于人的情感、通过想象与先验综合而获得的感性认知的产物。这种个别的知识(意象)是克罗齐心灵哲学的起点,也是西方美学突破古典美学、开始现代转型的标志。克罗齐用意象的个别性对抗具有普遍性的概念,强调现实内在于人的经验,进一步突出人的主体性价值,为人的感性认知在人类知识论中挣得一席之地。克罗齐的意象观以情感表现为根本,论证艺术自主与美学独立,为艺术划出一片独立的领地,将艺术从哲学、神学与道德的枷锁中解放出来,开启了现代艺术对于主体心灵的深入探索。而且,克罗齐的意象观否定了以往所有从艺术外部来评判艺术作品的文艺批评观,为文艺批评奠定了新的理论基础。国内对于克罗齐美学思想的研究,基本都集中于对克罗齐“直觉即表现”的探讨,但是对于直觉表现所生成的精神图景——意象——却鲜有提及。直觉是克罗齐哲学生成的逻辑起点,也是克罗齐美学中的艺术创造过程,而意象则是克罗齐美学中艺术创造的结果。克罗齐的意象首先是一个认识论意义上的概念,其次是一个美学与文学概念。因此,要厘清克罗齐的意象观,就需要基于其哲学认识论,分别对克罗齐美学中的纯诗意象与其文学思想中的意象予以甄别。本文将从克罗齐的美学思想和文学思想出发,对其意象观做一个递进式的探讨,以期清晰地展现克罗齐意象观的理论图景。




作者:论文网
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